AeManual / VCO


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The voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) is a typical analog audio oscillator with 1V/Oct pitch tracking for musical purposes. VCOs are one of the most basic audio sources in a synthesizer. Their sound is usually further shaped and refined by filters, wavefolders, voltage-controlled amplifiers (VCAs) and other audio effects.

Module power consumption: 16 mA


  • CV1 - control voltage input for pitch frequency (1V/Oct)
  • CV2 - another control voltage input for pitch frequency (1V/Oct)
  • MOD - control voltage input for modulating either frequency or the square wave's pulse width
  • PW - dedicated pulse width modulation control voltage input
  • SYNC - resets the waveform when a trigger signal is received


  • 2x RAMP - ramp/sawtooth wave output
  • 2x TRI - triangle wave output, quieter than the other outputs so it might need amplification via the 2SIGNALAMP module for example
  • 2x SQUARE - square wave output
  • BUS CV - pitch control voltage form the MASTER I/O module's MIDI-CV converter


  • MOD DEPTH Potentiometer - attenuator for the MOD input control voltage
  • MOD DEPTH Switch - switches the MOD control voltage target between frequency and pulse width
  • COARSE - coarse tuning of the VCO frequency
  • FINE - fine tuning of the VCO frequency
  • PULSEWIDTH - manual control over the square wave's pulse width, control voltage modulation is added to this potentiometer setting

Patch Suggestions

This video by Synths & Things explains the ins and outs of this module really well:

This video by The Tuesday Night Machines demonstrates frequency modulation sounds:


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Page last modified on June 25, 2020, at 03:07 AM
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